The inferred abundances were in close concordance with the observed counts, with relatively small uncertainties in the predicted abundances (expressed as 95% credible intervals). Uncertainties were greatest when monitoring was temporarily or permanently discontinued at some transects: during these periods, the predictions of abundance were driven by the expected dynamics of the fitted population model. 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We know now that self-perpetuating arid-zone ecosystems cannot be maintained if we have more than one rabbit per hectare. The feral European rabbit is one of the most widely distributed and abundant mammals in Australia. Within 70 years rabbits dominated two-thirds of the continent, in habitats ranging from Mount Kosciusko’s snows to Lake Eyre’s saline edge. K5, like other RHDV1 variants is not infectious to any other species except the European rabbit. Such an outcome would have desirable ecological and financial benefits, but there have been few tests of this hypothesis. The lag periods (k) on the demographic responses of rabbits and foxes to rainfall were assigned categorical priors, with equal (uniform) prior weights given to lag periods between 1 and 30 months. Current population density may also partly determine the future growth rates of rabbit (Fordham et al., 2012) and fox (Lindström, 1989) populations through density‐dependent mechanisms. They are an important prey species and are hunted by a wide range of predators, including foxes, weasels, eagles, hawks, wildcats and lynxes. Invasive species - Invasive species - Solutions: Most scientists agree that the most effective way to thwart further invasions of exotic species and contribute to the protection of biodiversity is to prevent the new species introductions in the first place. Devising management strategies under this assumption could lead to less effective population control and suboptimal allocation of resources to alternative control activities. Field experiments that exclude mammalian predators sometimes demonstrate significant increases in mammalian prey abundances (Krebs et al., 1995; Salo, Banks, Dickman, & Korpimäki, 2010), although the responses in invasive predator–prey systems are often weak or nonexistent (Davey et al., 2006; Pech, Sinclair, Newsome, & Catling, 1992). Foxes were not actively managed on any of the 21 properties, except for occasional recreational shooting. If predators can readily switch prey when preferred prey become scarce, then a strong functional response might not cause a discernible numerical response. Such shooting has little impact on fox populations (Saunders et al., 2010). These measures include the careful and appropriate use of poisoning, warren destruction and fumigation in an integrated way. Rabbits are now fighting back, but we seem to have lost the rabbit-control skills we once had. In contrast to rabbits, antecedent rainfall had a markedly positive effect on rates of increase of fox populations. Overdispersed zero‐inflated Poisson (ZIP) observation models were assumed for the counts of both foxes and rabbits. In Australia, two viruses were introduced to control European rabbits Oryctolagus cuniculus: myxoma virus in 1950 and rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus in 1995. We should not squander the benefits of biological controls by expecting them to do all the work. Rabbits: Manageable environmental pests or participants in new Australian ecosystems? The fit of the state‐space model of fox and rabbit abundances was assessed using posterior predictive checks and Bayesian p‐values (Gelman, Meng, & Stern, 1996). “It aims to develop a rabbit organoid tissue culture system, effectively miniaturised rabbit livers-in-a-dish, to allow the cultivation of rabbit caliciviruses in vitro. The scale of the, orcid.org/http://orcid.org/0000-0001-9441-6565, orcid.org/http://orcid.org/0000-0001-5356-9573, I have read and accept the Wiley Online Library Terms and Conditions of Use, Validating two methods for monitoring population size of the European rabbit, The numerical response: Rate of increase and food limitation in herbivores and predators, Indirect effects of invasive species removal devastate World Heritage Island, Eradicating down the food chain: Optimal multispecies eradication schedules for a commonly encountered invaded island ecosystem, Strength of evidence for density dependence in abundance time series of 1198 species, General methods for monitoring convergence of iterative simulations, State‐space models for the dynamics of wild animal populations, A reappraisal of the evidence for regulation of wolf populations, Home range, dispersal and density of Red Foxes (. Transects are arranged in order of increasing rainfall. They are grey brown in colour with a pale coloured underside. Rather, managers who wish to maintain foxes at low densities to protect agricultural or biodiversity values should implement fox control independently of rabbit control. RHDVs cause a disease characterized by convulsions, paralysis, and respiratory signs, including depression and inappetence. Enter your email address below and we will send you your username, If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to retrieve your username, Location of the 21 monitoring transects within the State of Victoria, showing variation in mean annual rainfall. Hence, the prediction that reductions in the abundance of European rabbits would reduce the abundance of red foxes was not supported. The almost rabbit-free decade that followed saw not only substantial economic benefits, but also important ecological advances. Researchers gave at least eight years warning that rabbits were on the rise. Quantifying the numerical response is critical to understanding the likely response of invasive predators to changes in invasive prey abundance. The rabbit management histories of the transects also varied.