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counts of catalonia

The construction of Catalonia. The activity consists in constructing human towers by competing colles castelleres (teams). [55][56] It was declared illegal and suspended by the Constitutional Court of Spain, because it breached the 1978 Constitution. In the High Pyrenees there are several ski resorts, near Lleida. It held annually the fourth-oldest still-existing cycling stage race in the world, the Volta a Catalunya (Tour of Catalonia). Various local food recipes have been described in documents dating from the fifteenth century. Most of the justice system is administered by national judicial institutions, the highest body and last judicial instance in the Catalan jurisdiction, integrating the Spanish judiciary, is the High Court of Justice of Catalonia. After the Spanish Civil War, the Francoist dictatorship enacted repressive measures, abolishing Catalan self-government and banning the official use of the Catalan language. The official opening between Barcelona and Madrid took place 20 February 2008. According to data from the Society of Appraisal on 31 December 2005 Catalonia is, after Madrid, the second most expensive region in Spain for housing: 3,397 €/m2 on average (see Spanish property bubble). At the northern entrance to the cathedral of Barcelona (Catedral de la Santa Creu i Santa Eulàlia – in short La Seu) you are able to see a small sculpture (a high-relief) that shows this legendary saint. The current regional division has its roots in a decree of the Generalitat de Catalunya of 1936, in effect until 1939, when it was suppressed by Franco. The fauna of Catalonia comprises a minority of animals endemic to the region and a majority of non-native animals. From Hairy Guifré (878 - 897), the county of Barcelona was hereditary. Catalonia, like many other parts of Spain, had been devastated by the war. The first known human settlements in what is now Catalonia were at the beginning of the Middle Palaeolithic. In everyday use, 11.95% of the population claim to use both languages equally, whereas 45.92% mainly use Spanish and 35.54% mainly use Catalan. [148] This policy was changed in 1946, when restricted publishing in Catalan resumed.[149]. Napoleon took direct control of Catalonia to establish order, creating the Government of Catalonia under the rule of Marshall Augereau, and making Catalan briefly an official language again. Modernism. [130] The sizeable increase of the population was due to the demographic boom in Spain during the 60s and early 70s[132] as well as in consequence of large-scale internal migration from the rural economically weak regions to its more prospering industrial cities. At the beginning of the nineteenth, century Catalonia was severely affected by the Napoleonic Wars. Engraver: Jean Warin. [81] In February of the same year, a poll by the Open University of Catalonia gave more or less the same results. In 1137, Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Barcelona decided to accept King Ramiro II of Aragon's proposal to marry Queen Petronila, establishing the dynastic union of the County of Barcelona with the Kingdom of Aragon, creating the Crown of Aragon and making the Catalan counties that were united under the county of Barcelona into a principality of the Aragonese Crown. The large and burdensome presence of the Spanish royal army in the Principality due to the Franco-Spanish War led to an uprising of peasants, provoking the Reapers' War (1640–1652), which saw Catalonia rebel (briefly as a republic led by the chairman of the Generalitat, Pau Claris) with French help against the Spanish Crown for overstepping Catalonia's rights during the Thirty Years' War. [64] Former President Carles Puigdemont and five former cabinet ministers fled Spain (such as Belgium, in Puigdemont's case), whereas nine other cabinet members, including vice-president Oriol Junqueras, were sentenced to prison under various charges of rebellion, sedition, and misuse of public funds. The Royal Catalonia. Chronologically, `Carolingian Catalonia' extended from Charle- magne's 778 expedition, through the region's domination by Carolin- gian rulers, until the time of Wifred the Hairy (count 870±897/8), the last count of Barcelona appointed by a Carolingian monarch.6 By the end of the ninth century, and especially during the tenth, Catalan counts became increasingly autonomous as Carolingian power waned. Sovereign of the County of Barcelona and later, by recognition and extension, of the Principality of Catalonia, from the 10th century up to the 18th century. In 1914, the four Catalan provinces were authorized to create a Commonwealth (Catalan: Mancomunitat de Catalunya), without any legislative power or specific autonomy which carried out an ambitious program of modernization, but it was disbanded in 1925 by the dictatorship of Primo de Rivera (1923-1930). The rejection to French dominion was institutionalized with the creation of "juntas" (councils) who, remaining loyal to the Bourbons, exercised the sovereignty and representation of the territory due to the disappearance of the old institutions. Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). The fight between the houses of Bourbon and Habsburg for the Spanish Crown split Spain and Europe. At the end of the 9th century, the Count of Barcelona Wilfred the Hairy made his title hereditary and founded the dynasty of the House of Barcelona, which ruled Catalonia until 1410. Location. [1] Some of the most important prehistoric remains were found in the caves of Mollet … Worn first by Josep Maria Forn or Bigas Luna, then by Marc Recha, Jaime Rosales and Albert Serra, this genre has achieved some international recognition. There are some examples of Renaissance (such as the Palau de la Generalitat), Baroque and Neoclassical architectures. Category:Counts of Catalonia | Familypedia | Fandom. Search terms . Several directors have gained worldwide renown thanks to this genre, starting with Jaume Balagueró and his series REC (co-directed with Valencian Paco Plaza), Juan Antonio Bayona and El Orfanato or Jaume Collet-Serra with Orphan, Unknown and Non-Stop. After that period, between the 16th and 19th centuries the Romantic historiography defined this era as the Decadència, considered as the "decadent" period in Catalan literature because of a general falling into disuse of the vernacular language in cultural contexts and lack of patronage among the nobility. Occitan is the mother tongue of 22.4% of the population of Val d'Aran, which has attracted heavy immigration from other Spanish regions to work in the service industry. [147] Although never completely banned, Catalan language publishing was severely restricted during the early 1940s, with only religious texts and small-run self-published texts being released. ), Catalonia nevertheless preserved its own laws, cortes (or corts), and language (akin to Provençal). Basic public education is given basically in Catalan, but also there are some hours per week of Spanish medium instruction. The Royal Catalonia. After the end of Francoist Spain, the newly established self-governing democratic institutions in Catalonia embarked on a long-term language policy to recover the use of Catalan[150] and has, since 1983, enforced laws which attempt to protect and extend the use of Catalan. Between 1812 and 1814, Catalonia was annexed to France and organized as four départements. There is an ongoing discussion … Catalonia Barcelona Plaza: You can do better. The territory was supposed to protect the French Empire from the Islamic invasions. Before the end of the 11th century, under Ramon Berenguer I, Catalonia had established the first constitutional government in Europe with a bill of rights, the Usatges. Throughout the 1980s and 1990s, the institutions of Catalan autonomy continued to develop, among them an autonomous police force (Mossos d'Esquadra, in 1983),[51] and the broadcasting network Televisió de Catalunya and its first channel TV3, created in 1983. Catalonia is a self-governing community, which is classified as an autonomous community in Spain; this means it is a first-level partisan and administrative division. Register Familypedia. Memory and Avant-garde. Some urban agglomerations became relevant, including Ilerda (Lleida) inland, Hibera (perhaps Amposta or Tortosa) or Indika (Ullastret). With the establishment of the Second Spanish Republic (1931–1939), the Generalitat was restored as a Catalan autonomous government. Powers (articles 110–173) of the 2006 Statute", "Centrifugal Spain: Umbrage in Catalonia", "CEO Public Opinion Poll covering, among others, nationalist opinions", "Diagnóstic de Percepcions Catalunya - Espanya", "El 42% de los catalanes dice que quiere que Cataluña sea independiente", "El apoyo a la independencia remite y cae al 40%", "MAPA - ¿Cómo se distribuye el voto independentista en Catalunya? Adding further confusion, Catalonia last week started disclosing regional numbers of coronavirus-suspected deaths, nearly doubling its previous toll with the addition of more than 3,000 fatalities. Each municipality is run by a council (ajuntament) elected every four years by the residents in local elections. … Apply. At the centre, the Olympic Stadium Lluís Companys, Catalonia has its own representative and distinctive national symbols such as:[187]. Tarraco (modern Tarragona) was one of the most important Roman cities in Hispania and the capital of the province of Tarraconensis. Payne, Stanley Fascism in Spain, 1923–1977, pp. This is accompanied by a certain agricultural abandonment (decrease of 15% of all areas cultivated in Catalonia between 1993 and 2009) and a global threat to natural environment. Memory and Avant-garde. [68], In 2018, the Assemblea Nacional Catalana joined the Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization (UNPO) on behalf of Catalonia. The Catalan capital and largest city, Barcelona, is a major international cultural centre and a major tourist destination. By virtue of descent from his maternal grandparents, Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile, in 1516 Charles I of Spain became the first king to rule the Crowns of Castile and Aragon simultaneously by his own right. The earliest known use of the name "Catalonia" for these counties dates to 1117. As with all the cuisines of the Mediterranean, Catatonian dishes make abundant use of fish, seafood, olive oil, bread and vegetables. The Coat of arms of Catalonia is based on four red pallets on gold background which have been used since the Middle Ages on several coats of arms. Since the 2010s there has been growing support for Catalan independence. Memory and Avant-garde. After Isabella's death, Ferdinand II personally ruled both kingdoms. On the 25th, Christmas is celebrated, followed by a similar feast on the 26, called Sant Esteve (Saint Steve's Day). military rebellion against the Republican government in Barcelona, Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization, sentenced several Catalan political leaders, 25 November 2012 Catalan parliamentary election, president of the Generalitat of Catalonia, unilateral declaration of independence in 2017, List of country subdivisions by GDP over 100 billion US dollars, Centre of Contemporary Culture of Barcelona, Catalan Romanesque Churches of the Vall de Boí, Catalonia became another Spanish territory to forbid bullfighting, Conservatori Superior de Música del Liceu, Museum of Cinema - Tomàs Mallol Collection, Fédération Internationale de Rugby Amateur, https://www.idescat.cat/indicadors/?id=anuals&n=10328&lang=en&tema=xifpo, "Indicadors geogràfics. 8 / 10 TRÈS BIEN. Search terms . English translation unavailable for José Segrelles, mestre de la fantasia. If you look high up on the corner turning towards the sea, you will be able to glimpse a person fighting a drag… Catalan gastronomy has a long culinary tradition. During the last steps of the Dictatorship, Barcelona celebrated the 1929 International Exposition,[43] while Spain began to suffer an economical crisis. After the fall of the First Spanish Republic and the restoration of the Bourbon dynasty (1874), Catalan nationalism grew in importance. Noucentisme. Catalonia was divided, the coast and most industrialized areas support liberalism, while many inland areas were in the hands of Carlists, as the last ones proposed to reestablish the institutional systems suppressed in the Nueva Planta decrees in all the ancient realms of the Crown of Aragon. The Catalans won triumphs in waterpolo competitions at European and world level by club (the Barcelona was champion of Europe in 1981/82 and the Catalonia in 1994/95) and national team (one gold and one silver in Olympic Games and World Championships). Add new page. Catalan vineyards also have several Denominacions d'Origen wines, such as: Priorat, Montsant, Penedès and Empordà. Heaven on Earth. Regarding the cinema, after the democratic transition, three styles have dominated since then. The inland part of Catalonia is hotter and drier in summer. However, in the context of Catalonia, the term "county" can be a bit misleading, because in medieval Catalonia, aside from the kings of Aragon, the most important rulers were counts, notably the Counts of Barcelona and of Urgell. Facebook Twitter Pinterest. Agricultural yields rose as a result of an increase in cultivation and … The civil laws that are subject to autonomous legislation have been codified in the Civil Code of Catalonia (Codi civil de Catalunya) since 2002.[105]. [54], A controversial independence referendum was held in Catalonia on 1 October 2017, using a disputed voting process. [86], Since 2011 when the question started to be regularly surveyed by the governmental Center for Public Opinion Studies (CEO), support for Catalan independence has been on the rise. Both the 1979 Statute of Autonomy and the current one, approved in 2006, state that "Catalonia, as a nationality, exercises its self-government constituted as an Autonomous Community in accordance with the Constitution and with the Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia, which is its basic institutional law, always under the law in Spain". Through the Renaissance there were authors such as Pere Albert Vila, Joan Brudieu or the two Mateu Fletxa ("The Old" and "The Young"). In addition, the Generalitat has carried out the Plan of Spaces of Natural Interest (Pla d'Espais d'Interès Natural or PEIN) in 1992 while eighteen Natural Spaces of Special Protection (Espais Naturals de Protecció Especial or ENPE) have been instituted. COUNTS - THE ORIGINS OF CATALONI A 2 x 52', 4 x 30 (CAT, ENG subs) In the 9th centur y Catalonia was par t of the Carolingian empire. In main celebrations, other elements of the Catalan popular culture are also usually present: parades with gegants (giants), bigheads, stick-dancers and musicians, and the correfoc, where devils and monsters dance and spray showers of sparks using firecrackers. Catalonia has its own police force, the Mossos d'Esquadra (officially called Mossos d'Esquadra-Policia de la Generalitat de Catalunya), whose origins date back to the 18th century. Throughout the 18th century, Catalonia experienced economic growth. Franco's regime banned the use of Catalan in government-run institutions and during public events, and also the Catalan institutions of self-government were abolished. Catalunya", "Idescat. Other important institutions for the promotion of cinema are the Gaudí Awards (Premis Gaudí in Catalan, which replaced from 2009 Barcelona Film Awards themselves created in 2002), serving as equivalent for Catalonia to the Spanish Goya or French César. Demographic Survey. [163] Debates in the Catalan Parliament take place almost exclusively in Catalan and the Catalan public television broadcasts programs basically in Catalan. After the Bourbon restoration in Spain and the death of the absolutist king Ferdinand VII, Carlist Wars erupted against the new born liberal state of Isabella II. – Publimetro", "Senate Concurrent Resolution No. The wealth of the four counties that its ruler, Count-Marquis Borrell II (945–93), controlled had been growing throughout his … The Catalan Counties. Lowlands alternate with the Costal and Pre-Costal Ranges. Romanticism and Industrialization. It was a rich agricultural province (olive oil, vine, wheat), and the first centuries of the Empire saw the construction of roads (the most important being the Via Augusta, parallel to Mediterranean coastline) and infrastructure like aqueducts. Catalonia is a showcase of European landscapes on a small scale. The president of the Generalitat of Catalonia (in Catalan: president de la Generalitat de Catalunya) is the highest representative of Catalonia, and is also responsible of leading the government's action. “Catalonia is an international leader in the development of medical technologies.” The Health Technology Cluster was constituted on 30 June 2014, promoted by ACC1Ó – Catalan Agency for Competitiveness, Government of Catalonia. The Romantic music was represented by composers such as Fernando Sor, Josep Anselm Clavé (father of choir movement in Catalonia and responsible of the music folk reviving) or Felip Pedrell. Between 2003 and 2010, a leftist coalition, composed by the Catalan Socialists' Party, the pro-independence Republican Left of Catalonia and the leftist-environmentalist Initiative for Catalonia-Greens, implemented policies that widened Catalan autonomy. Ramon Berenguer I Comte de … Navarre, the Basque Country and Catalonia are the Spanish communities with the highest degree of autonomy in terms of law enforcement. Born in Liège, Varin moved to Paris in 1626. In hundreds of non-binding local referendums on independence, organised across Catalonia from 13 September 2009, a large majority voted for independence, although critics argued that the polls were mostly held in pro-independence areas. Apply. The main tourist destinations in Catalonia are the city of Barcelona, the beaches of the Costa Brava in Girona, the beaches of the Costa del Maresme and Costa del Garraf from Malgrat de Mar to Vilanova i la Geltrú and the Costa Daurada in Tarragona. The Catalan Pyrenees represent almost half in length of the Pyrenees, as it extends more than 200 kilometres (120 miles). Guifré died in battle against the Moors in 897, but he had started a dynasty of Counts of Barcelona which was to last, unbroken, for 500 years. On 11 September 2012, a pro-independence march pulled in a crowd of between 600,000 (according to the Spanish Government), 1.5 million (according to the Guàrdia Urbana de Barcelona), and 2 million (according to its promoters);[92][93] whereas poll results revealed that half the population of Catalonia supported secession from Spain. As of 2017, the official population of Catalonia was 7,522,596. : 1027: First Assembly of Peace and Truce of God of Catalonia, in Toulouges (Roussillon), promoted and presided by Abbot Oliba. Anuari estadístic de Catalunya. The name Catalonia—Catalunya in Catalan, spelled Cathalonia, or Cathalaunia in Medieval Latin—began to be used for the homeland of the Catalans (Cathalanenses) in the late 11th century and was probably used before as a territorial reference to the group of counties that comprised part of the March of Gothia and March of Hispania under the control of the Count of Barcelona and his relatives. The first slope provides an average of 18,700 cubic hectometres (4.5 cubic miles) per year, while the second only provides an average of 2,020 hm3 (0.48 cu mi)/year. Between 1347 and 1497 Catalonia lost 37 percent of its population. The Royal Catalonia. The first constitutions were promulgated by the Corts of 1283. [28] Around the middle of the 7th century BC, the Iron Age arrived in Catalonia. The objections are based on various issues such as disputed cultural heritage but, especially, on the Statute's alleged breaches of the principle of "solidarity between regions" in fiscal and educational matters enshrined by the Constitution. Elevation ranges from 200 to 600 metres (660 to 1,970 feet). Then, the documentary became another genre particularly representative of contemporary Catalan cinema, boosted by Joaquim Jordà i Català and José Luis Guerín. The Museum of Cinema - Tomàs Mallol Collection (Museu del Cinema - Col.lecció Tomàs Mallol in Catalan) of Girona is home of important permanent exhibitions of cinema and pre-cinema objects. In the Mediterranean area, summers are dry and hot with sea breezes, and the maximum temperature is around 26–31 °C (79–88 °F). Several lyrical artists trained by this institution gained international renown during the 20th century, such as Victoria de los Ángeles, Montserrat Caballé, Giacomo Aragall and Josep Carreras. Mapa. The official languages are Catalan, Spanish, and the Aranese dialect of Occitan.[12]. This article is about the Spanish autonomous community. Facebook Twitter Pinterest. In 2018, TV3 became the first television channel to be the most viewed one for nine consecutive years in Catalonia. After the transition to democracy (1975–1978) and the restoration of the Generalitat (1977), literary life and the editorial market have returned to normality and literary production in Catalan is being bolstered with a number of language policies intended to protect Catalan culture. The territorial plan of Catalonia (Pla territorial general de Catalunya) provided six general functional areas,[108] but was amended by Law 24/2001, of 31 December, recognizing the Alt Pirineu i Aran as a new functional area differentiated of Ponent. [31] This treaty confirmed, from French point of view, the independence of the Catalan counties established and exercised during the previous three centuries, but also meant the irremediable separation between the geographical areas of Catalonia and Languedoc. Areas within the Pre-Coastal Range include Montserrat, Montseny and the Ports de Tortosa-Beseit. Same counts for the size of the room. Then, on 9 August 2006, when the new Statute came into force, Occitan became official throughout Catalonia. The Catalan Coastal mountain ranges or the Catalan Mediterranean System: an alternating delevacions and planes parallel to the Mediterranean coast; This page was last edited on 16 January 2021, at 00:26. During this time, he also led Convergència i Unió (CiU), a center-right Catalan nationalist electoral coalition. Dissatisfaction in Catalonia with the new Trastámara dynasty of Aragon increased after 1412, and during the reign of John II it developed into a full-scale but unsuccessful rebellion (1462–72). The Pyrenean peaks have a continental (Köppen D) or even Alpine climate (Köppen ET) at the highest summits, while the valleys have a maritime or oceanic climate sub-type (Köppen Cfb). 266,938 Pages. Lately, a similar sociolinguistic phenomenon has occurred with foreign immigration. By the Treaty of the Pyrenees (1659), the northern parts of Catalonia, mostly the Roussillon, were ceded to France. Recovery from the war damage was slow and made more difficult by the international trade embargo and the autarkic politics of Franco's regime. Scottish referendum results: 10 counts of electoral fraud alleged in Glasgow. Catalonia). The most significant conflict concerning the governing monarchy was the War of the Spanish Succession, which began when the childless Charles II of Spain, the last Spanish Habsburg, died without an heir in 1700. Flags are a constant point of contention between Catalonia’s number one football club and Spanish sports authorities. The Central Catalan Depression is a plain located between the Pyrenees and Pre-Coastal Mountains. Top 25 Miravet Castle. Comarques have no particular relation to the "counties" that were ruled by counts. 1/12 Ecu - Louis XIII (Prince of Catalonia) ¼ Ecu - Louis XIII (Count of Catalonia) ½ Ecu - Louis XIII (Count of Catalonia) Ecu - Louis XIII (Prince of Catalonia) Louis d'or - Louis XIII … Every comarca is administered by a comarcal council (consell comarcal). This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. 270,722 Pages. 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