which of these is true about attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

[1] The criteria must have been met prior to age twelve in order to receive a diagnosis of ADHD. [105], In addition to genetics, some environmental factors might play a role in causing ADHD. [127], Current models of ADHD suggest that it is associated with functional impairments in some of the brain's neurotransmitter systems, particularly those involving dopamine and norepinephrine. Otherwise, the disorder is classified as disturbance of activity and attention, other hyperkinetic disorders or hyperkinetic disorders, unspecified. Mindfulness is a receptive attention to present experience. [16] When diagnosed via the ICD-10 criteria rates in this age group are estimated at 1–2%. [211] However, zinc supplementation may reduce the minimum effective dose of amphetamine when it is used with amphetamine for the treatment of ADHD. Difficulty paying attention (inattention) Being overactive (hyperactivity) Acting without thinking (impulsivity) These symptoms get in the way of functioning or development. [144] ADHD stimulants also improve persistence and task performance in children with ADHD. [82], In entrepreneurship, there has been interest in the traits of people with ADHD. [55], In the implementation version of ICD-11, the disorder is classified under 6A05 (Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder) and hyperkinetic disorder no longer exists. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a behavioral disorder that typically begins in childhood and is characterized by a short attention span (inattention), an inability to be calm and stay still (hyperactivity), and poor impulse control (impulsivity). [205][206][207] In particular, the long-term effects of regular aerobic exercise in ADHD individuals include better behavior and motor abilities, improved executive functions (including attention, inhibitory control, and planning, among other cognitive domains), faster information processing speed, and better memory. [167], The management of ADHD typically involves counseling or medications either alone or in combination. [188][189][190] Administration of an antipsychotic medication has been found to effectively resolve the symptoms of acute amphetamine psychosis. In contrast, ADHD has more marked impairments in working memory (Digit Span Test) and verbal fluency (“say as many words that begin with the letter S as you can in one minute”). CDC is not responsible for Section 508 compliance (accessibility) on other federal or private website. [61] It often takes into account feedback from parents and teachers[28] with most diagnoses begun after a teacher raises concerns. [129][133] The posterior parietal cortex also shows thinning in individuals with ADHD compared to controls. [38][179] They improve symptoms in 80% of people, although improvement is not sustained if medication is ceased. [148], Diagnosis of ADHD using quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG) is an ongoing area of investigation, although the value of QEEG in ADHD is currently unclear. [99], In order for genetic variation to be used as a tool for diagnosis, more validating studies need to be performed. If symptoms persist, then parent-training, medication, or psychotherapy (especially cognitive behavioral therapy) can be recommended based on age. These disorders can also sometimes occur along with ADHD. A 2016 systematic review found a well established association between ADHD and obesity. [200], Guidelines on when to use medications vary by country. ", "MerckMedicus Modules: ADHD –Pathophysiology", "ADHD: clinical practice guideline for the diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents", "FDA permits marketing of first brain wave test to help assess children and teens for ADHD", "Diagnostic Criteria in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder - Changes in DSM 5", "Diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: much ado about something", "Challenges in identifying and managing attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in adults in the primary care setting: a review of the literature", "Annual Research Review: Does late‐onset attention‐deficit/hyperactivity disorder exist? [225], Alfred Tredgold proposed an association between brain damage and behavioral or learning problems which was able to be validated by the encephalitis lethargica epidemic from 1917 through 1928. [215], ADHD is estimated to affect about 6–7% of people aged 18 and under when diagnosed via the DSM-IV criteria. [121][122][123] This effect has been seen across a number of countries. This is called attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, or ADHD. Mol Psychiatry. Its contents are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official views of the CDC or the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). [65][141] The criteria for an executive function deficit are met in 30–50% of children and adolescents with ADHD. [23], Having ADHD symptoms since childhood is usually required to be diagnosed with adult ADHD. [4][23] Additionally, it is classified as a disruptive behavior disorder along with ODD, CD, and antisocial personality disorder. [96] The 7 repeat variant of dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4–7R) causes increased inhibitory effects induced by dopamine and is associated with ADHD. [165] Electroencephalography (EEG) is not accurate enough to make the diagnosis. [38][197] There are no good studies comparing the various medications; however, they appear more or less equal with respect to side effects. However, some people never completely outgrow their ADHD symptoms. [117][105][118] The United Kingdom and the European Union have put in place regulatory measures based on these concerns. [235] ADHD was split into the current three sub-types because of a field trial completed by Lahey and colleagues. ADHD, also called attention-deficit disorder, is a behavior disorder, usually first diagnosed in childhood, that is characterized by inattention, impulsivity, and, in some cases, hyperactivity. How to help children with ADHD with changes in schooling. [232][233], Until the 1990s, many studies "implicated the prefrontal-striatal network as being smaller in children with ADHD". 2020 Nov;29(11):1569-1579. doi: 10.1007/s00787-020-01471-1. The role of attention came to the fore as a new theory proposed that problems in sustaining attention were the drivers of hyperactivity. Behavior therapy, medications, and school. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a brain disorder that affects how you pay attention, sit still, and control your behavior. [128][129] The dopamine and norepinephrine pathways that originate in the ventral tegmental area and locus coeruleus project to diverse regions of the brain and govern a variety of cognitive processes. [105] This review also found that evidence does not support removing other foods from the diet to treat ADHD. [85][83] People with ADHD are more interested in entrepreneurship, and have some traits which are useful to entrepreneurial skills: curiosity, openness to experience, impulsivity, risk-taking, and hyper-focus. [188] Although very rare, at therapeutic doses these events appear to occur in approximately 0.1% of individuals within the first several weeks after starting amphetamine therapy. [46][47] Academic difficulties are frequent as are problems with relationships. [25], With widely differing rates of diagnosis across countries, states within countries, races, and ethnicities, some suspect factors other than the presence of the symptoms of ADHD are playing a role in diagnosis. Questioning parents or guardians as to how the person behaved and developed as a child may form part of the assessment; a family history of ADHD also adds weight to a diagnosis. While children with ADHD may climb and run about excessively, adults may experience an inability to relax, or they talk excessively in social situations. 1,3. american sign language interpreting icon Learn about symptoms of ADHD, how ADHD is diagnosed, and treatment recommendations including behavior therapy, medication, and school support. [17] As of 2019, it was estimated to affect 84.7 million people globally. [196], There are a number of non-stimulant medications, such as atomoxetine, bupropion, guanfacine, and clonidine that may be used as alternatives, or added to stimulant therapy. [77] A 2017 review showed that a few-foods elimination diet may help children too young to be medicated or not responding to medication, while free fatty acid supplementation or decreased eating of artificial food coloring as standard ADHD treatment is not advised. ASD shows genetic overlap with ADHD at both common and rare levels of genetic variation. [135], Previously it was thought that the elevated number of dopamine transporters in people with ADHD was part of the pathophysiology but it appears that the elevated numbers are due to adaptation to exposure to stimulants. Other conditions that should be considered are other neurodevelopmental disorders, tics, and sleep apnea. [242] Some sociologists consider ADHD to be an example of the medicalization of deviant behavior, that is, the turning of the previously non-medical issue of school performance into a medical one. The latter is sometimes referred to as hyperkinetic syndrome. [208] Chronic deficiencies of iron, magnesium and iodine may have a negative impact on ADHD symptoms. The table "DSM-5 symptoms" lists the symptoms for ADHD-I and ADHD HI. When a conduct disorder (as defined by ICD-10)[55] is present, the condition is referred to as hyperkinetic conduct disorder. [205] Exercising while on stimulant medication augments the effect of stimulant medication on executive function. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic condition that affects millions of children and often continues into adulthood. [168] Medications used include stimulants, atomoxetine, alpha-2 adrenergic receptor agonists, and sometimes antidepressants. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) treatment. [164], Reviews of ADHD biomarkers have noted that platelet monoamine oxidase expression, urinary norepinephrine, urinary MHPG, and urinary phenethylamine levels consistently differ between ADHD individuals and healthy control. [155] The symptoms must be inappropriate for a child of that age[155][157] and there must be clear evidence that they are causing social, school or work related problems. In children, ADHD occurs with other disorders about two-thirds of the time. Learn About Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Español (Spanish) Related Pages. ADHD, predominantly hyperactive-impulsive type presents with excessive fidgetiness and restlessness, hyperactivity, difficulty waiting and remaining seated, immature behavior; destructive behaviors may also be present. [98] The genes glucose-fructose oxidoreductase domain-containing 1 (GFOD1) and cadherin 13 (CHD13) show strong genetic associations with ADHD. [174] Parent training may improve a number of behavioral problems including oppositional and non compliant behaviors. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. [194][195] Untreated ADHD, however, is also associated with elevated risk of substance use disorders, conduct disorders. The genetics of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in adults, a review. [65][129][130][140] Executive functions are a set of cognitive processes that are required to successfully select and monitor behaviors that facilitate the attainment of one's chosen goals. ", "Evaluating Prescription Drugs Used to Treat: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Comparing Effectiveness, Safety, and Price", "Review of the possible relationship and hypothetical links between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and the simple sleep related movement disorders, parasomnias, hypersomnias, and circadian rhythm disorders", "Rare cancers may masquerade as ADHD in children, NIH researchers suggest", "Interventions by pharmacists in out-patient pharmaceutical care", "A systematic review and analysis of long-term outcomes in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: effects of treatment and non-treatment", "Cognitive-behavioural Interventions for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Adults", "Evidence-based psychosocial treatments for children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder", "Neurofeedback for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Meta-Analysis of Clinical and Neuropsychological Outcomes From Randomized Controlled Trials", "Practitioner Review: Current best practice in the use of parent training and other behavioural interventions in the treatment of children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder", "Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)", "The importance of friendship for youth with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder", "Amphetamines for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults", "Methylphenidate for children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)", "Risk of unintentional injuries in children and adolescents with ADHD and the impact of ADHD medications: A systematic review and meta-analysis", "Meta-analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging studies of inhibition and attention in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: exploring task-specific, stimulant medication, and age effects", "Effect of psychostimulants on brain structure and function in ADHD: a qualitative literature review of magnetic resonance imaging-based neuroimaging studies", "Meta-analysis of structural MRI studies in children and adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder indicates treatment effects", "Comparative efficacy and tolerability of medications for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in children, adolescents, and adults: a systematic review and network meta-analysis", "The challenges to demonstrating long-term effects of psychostimulant treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder", "Drug Holidays From ADHD Medication: International Experience Over the Past Four Decades", "Drug Class Review: Pharmacologic Treatments for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder", "Using stimulants for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: clinical approaches and challenges", "Individualizing Treatment for Adult ADHD: An Evidence-Based Guideline", "New-Generation Long-Acting Stimulants for the Treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder", "Sweat it out? People with Down syndrome are more likely to have ADHD. ADHD can have lifelong affect. With that said, most ADHD cases are of unknown causes. These infections include, among others, various viruses (measles, varicella zoster encephalitis, rubella, enterovirus 71). [113][114] At least 30% of children with a traumatic brain injury later develop ADHD[115] and about 5% of cases are due to brain damage. [145] Whether someone responds to medications does not confirm or rule out the diagnosis. [91] Typically, a number of genes are involved, many of which directly affect dopamine neurotransmission. [109] Exposure to tobacco smoke during pregnancy can cause problems with central nervous system development and can increase the risk of ADHD. [13] Nicotine exposure during pregnancy may be an environmental risk. As imaging studies of the brain do not give consistent results between individuals, they are only used for research purposes and not diagnosis. Many of these questions, you are at once both philosophical inquiry with teachers in various stylistic languages. [12][108] Exposure to the organophosphate insecticides chlorpyrifos and dialkyl phosphate is associated with an increased risk; however, the evidence is not conclusive. [129] Other brain structures in the prefrontal-striatal-cerebellar and prefrontal-striatal-thalamic circuits have also been found to differ between people with and without ADHD. CHD13's association with ASD, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and depression make it an interesting candidate causative gene. [152][153], Self-rating scales, such as the ADHD rating scale and the Vanderbilt ADHD diagnostic rating scale are used in the screening and evaluation of ADHD. [192][193] Long-term misuse of stimulant medications at doses above the therapeutic range for ADHD treatment is associated with addiction and dependence. [154], As with many other psychiatric disorders, formal diagnosis should be made by a qualified professional based on a set number of criteria. Prevalence. [2], Adults with ADHD are diagnosed under the same criteria, including that their signs must have been present by the age of six to twelve. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Individuals with this disorder show an inappropriate degree of inattention, impulsiveness, and hyperactivity before the age of 12. [41][37][179] Methylphenidate appears to improve symptoms as reported by teachers and parents. [225][226][227], The terminology used to describe the condition has changed over time and has included: in the DSM-I (1952) "minimal brain dysfunction," in the DSM-II (1968) "hyperkinetic reaction of childhood," and in the DSM-III (1980) "attention-deficit disorder (ADD) with or without hyperactivity. [17] Children in North America appear to have a higher rate of ADHD than children in Africa and the Middle East; this is believed to be due to differing methods of diagnosis rather than a difference in underlying frequency. [42][43] The condition was officially known as attention deficit disorder (ADD) from 1980 to 1987, while before this it was known as hyperkinetic reaction of childhood. People with ADHD may find it more difficult than others to focus on and complete tasks such as schoolwork. [1][236], ADHD, its diagnosis, and its treatment have been controversial since the 1970s. [231] Charles Bradley gave the children with behavioral disorders Benzedrine and found it improved academic performance and behavior. [198] Antipsychotics may also be used to treat aggression in ADHD. Girls with ADHD tend to display fewer hyperactivity and impulsivity symptoms but more symptoms pertaining to inattention and distractibility. [143] Due to the rates of brain maturation and the increasing demands for executive control as a person gets older, ADHD impairments may not fully manifest themselves until adolescence or even early adulthood. [219] The use of stimulants to treat ADHD was first described in 1937. It is a neurodevelopmental disorder because it affects how the brain develops. However, smaller studies have shown that genetic polymorphisms in genes related to catecholaminergic neurotransmission or the SNARE complex of the synapse can reliably predict a person's response to stimulant medication. While treatment may improve long-term outcomes, it does not get rid of negative outcomes entirely. [119] In a minority of children, intolerances or allergies to certain foods may worsen ADHD symptoms. Learn about CDC’s initiative to support children with ADHD. A 2020 review found that creativity may be associated with ADHD symptoms, particularly divergent thinking and quantity of creative achievements, but not with the disorder of ADHD itself. [17] It is believed that changes to the diagnostic criteria in 2013 with the release of the DSM-5 will increase the percentage of people diagnosed with ADHD, especially among adults. [120] A 2016 review stated that the use of a gluten-free diet as standard ADHD treatment is not advised. [19] ADHD is diagnosed approximately two times more often in boys than in girls,[1] although the disorder is often overlooked in girls because their symptoms are often less disruptive. [35], The social construct theory of ADHD suggests that because the boundaries between "normal" and "abnormal" behavior are socially constructed, (i.e. [85], On a purely mechanical level, the symptomatic mechanisms of ADHD are generally understood. ADHD is a neurodevelopmental disorder* that affects roughly 4.4% of the U.S. population, and is the most commonly diagnosed mental disorder in children. [1][2][3][4] Some individuals with ADHD also display difficulty regulating emotions or problems with executive function. [151] The approved test uses the ratio of EEG theta to beta activity to guide diagnosis; however, at least five studies have failed to replicate the finding. [26] Adults often develop coping skills which compensate for some or all of their impairments. [89] Siblings of children with ADHD are three to four times more likely to develop the disorder than siblings of children without the disorder. The history of psychiatry is the history of therapeutic enthusiasm with all of the triumph and tragedy, hubris and humility that this brings. [125] In other cases, it may be explained by increasing academic expectations, with a diagnosis being a method for parents in some countries to get extra financial and educational support for their child. Understanding attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) helps you understand how it affects your child. [12][110], Extreme premature birth, very low birth weight, and extreme neglect, abuse, or social deprivation also increase the risk[12][111] as do certain infections during pregnancy, at birth, and in early childhood. [149][150] In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration has approved the use of QEEG to evaluate ADHD. [41] Most healthcare providers accept ADHD as a genuine disorder in children and adults, and the debate in the scientific community mainly centers on how it is diagnosed and treated. at home and at school or work). [34] Careful monitoring of children while taking this medication is recommended. [194] The use of stimulants appears to either reduce these risks or have no effect on it. For other uses, see, Neurodevelopmental disorder marked by difficulty focusing, or excessive activity and impulsive behavior, CS1 maint: DOI inactive as of December 2020 (, Diet and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder management, National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE), National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Epidemiology of attention deficit hyperactive disorder, History of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder controversies, "ICD-11 – Mortality and Morbidity Statistics", "Inattentiveness in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder", "Response Inhibition, Response Execution, and Emotion Regulation among Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder", "Pharmacotherapy of emotional dysregulation in adults with ADHD: A systematic review and meta-analysis", "Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder", "Updated European Consensus Statement on diagnosis and treatment of adult ADHD", "Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (Easy-to-Read)", "Discovery of the first genome-wide significant risk loci for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder", "Prenatal nicotine exposure and child behavioural problems", "The prevalence of DSM-IV attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a meta-analytic review", Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, "Global Burden of Disease Study 2019: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder—Level 3 cause", "Ch.

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